- Category: General Dentistry, Professional Ethics & Patient Management
- Aim: Revising for NBDE Part II
- Questions: 16
- Hint: No
- Mutiple Opportunites: No
- Time Limit: No
- Answer Explaining: Yes
Professional Ethics / Patient Management
All of the above
- Very fearful and cry excessively or show no fear at all, unhappy and withdrawn
- Behavior may be different when parent is present
- Developmental delays in language or motor skills
- Malnutrition, untidy appearance
- Long-sleeved shirts and long pants in warm weather to possibly cover bruises or finger marks on arms, legs, or neck
- Wounds at different stages of healing inconsistent with parent’s explanation. Burns, bite marks, and trauma to neck, eyes, and ears.
- Lips may be swollen or bruised, scars may indicate past history of trauma
- Marks around corners of mouth, possibly due to child being gagged
- Injury to the teeth → fractured, premature loss, darkened appearance
- Fractured jaw
- Injuries to the tongue
- Evidence of ignoring child’s dental needs
- Torn or lacerated oral frenums.
Dentists cannot deny anyone care due to a disability
Dental offices must undergo structural changes to allow access for the disabled
Dentists cannot dismiss employees due to a disability
Patients with HIV are not protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act
- A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of such individual
- A record of such impairment
- Being regarded as having such impairment.
- General Supervision → the dentist has recommended a dental hygiene procedure for a patient of record but doesn’t have to be physically present while that procedure is being performed
- Direct Supervision → the dentist has diagnosed and recommended specific treatment by the dental hygienist, remains on the premises while the patient is being treated, and approves the work performed prior to the dismissal of the patient;
- Personal Supervision → the dentist is treating a patient and the hygienist is concurrently performing a supportive procedure that has been recommended by the dentist.
Shall not refuse to accept patients into their practice or deny dental service to patients because of the patient’s race, creed, color, sex or national origin.
Have the general obligation to provide care to those in need. A decision not to provide treatment to an individual because the individual is infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus or another blood-borne pathogen, based solely on that fact, is unethical.
Shall be obliged to make reasonable arrangements for the emergency care of their patients of record.
All of the above
Revocation of license
- Censure: a disciplinary sentence written to express severe criticism or disapproval for a particular type of conduct or act.
- Suspension: a loss of membership privileges for a certain period with automatic reinstatement.
- Probation: a specified period without the loss of rights in lieu of a suspended disciplinary penalty. A dentist on probation may be required to practice under the supervision of a dentist or other individual approved by the dental board.
- Revocation of license: absolute severance from the profession.
- A guilty verdict for a criminal felony.
- A guilty verdict for violating the bylaws or principles of the Code of Ethics
C. Quality assurance is the measurement of the quality of care and the implementation of any necessary changes to either maintain or improve the quality of care rendered.
The differences in these definitions are important: quality assessment is limited to the appraisal of whether or not standards of quality have been met, whereas quality assurance includes the additional dimension of action to take the necessary corrective steps to improve the situation in the future.
The following concepts relate to quality assurance:
- Structure → refers to the layout and equipment of a facility.
- Process → involves the actual services that the dentist and assistant perform for the patients and how well they perform.
- Outcome → is the change in health status that occurs as a result of the care delivered.
- The specialists or consulting dentists upon completion of their care shall return the patient, unless the patient expressly reveals a different preference, to the referring dentists or, if none, to the dentist of record for future care
- The specialists shall be obliged when there is no referring dentist and upon a completion of their treatment to inform patients when there is a need for further dental care.
- Inferences of a specialty by a general dentist
- Use of unearned degrees as titles to enhance prestige
***A dentist may use the title Doctor or Dentist, DDS, DMD or any additional earned, advanced academic degrees in health service areas in an announcement to the public
- An advertisement to the public of HIV negative test results, without conveying additional information that will clarify the scientific significance of this fact.
***A dentist could satisfy his or her obligation to convey additional information by clearly stating in the advertisement or other communication: “This negative HIV test can not guarantee that I am currently free of HIV”
Morally obligated to report child abuse
Ethically obligated to report child abuse
Legally obligated to report child abuse
All of the above
- Child abuse most commonly involves newborns and children up to the age of three years.
- Dentists are also ethically obligated to identify and refer cases of domestic violence. Practitioners should become familiar with the physical signs of domestic violence, especially because 68% of battered women’s injuries involve the face, 45% the eyes, and 12% the neck.
A dentist who accepts a third party payment under a co-payment plan as payment in full without disclosing to the third party that the patient’s payment portion will not be collected, is engaged in overbilling.
It is unethical for a dentist to increase a fee to a patient solely because the patient is covered under a dental benefits plan.
A dentist who submits a claim form to a third party reporting incorrect treatment dates for the purpose of assisting a patient in obtaining benefits under a dental plan, which benefits would otherwise be disallowed, is engaged in making an unethical, false or misleading representation to such third party.
A dentist who incorrectly describes a dental procedure on a third party claim form in order to receive a greater payment or reimbursement, or incorrectly makes a non-covered procedure appear to be a covered procedure on such a claim form, is engaged in making an unethical, false or misleading representation to such third party.
All of the above statements are true
Give the highest quality of service of which he or she is capable
Preserve a healthy dentition unless it compromises the well-being of other teeth
Participate in legal and public health-related matters
All of the above
A description of the proposed treatment
The costs involved in the proposed treatment
The foreseeable risks
The benefits and prognosis of the proposed treatment
All reasonable alternatives to the proposed treatment
The risks, benefits, and prognosis of the alternative treatments
- a description of the patient’s condition
- the proposed treatment
- the possibilities that the treatment may or may not be successful
- the foreseen outcome of not treating the patient’s condition
- all of the involved risks
- other possible treatment options for the patient
- cost of treatment
- estimated number and length of appointments
- when payments are expected by the patient
- how long it will take to complete all phases of treatment
- signed and dated by the patient or guardian ***Both parties (dentist and patient) get a copy
The dental profession and insurance companies
The dental profession and public health board of directors
The dental profession and society
The dental profession and the local government
- The Principles of Ethics
- The Code of Professional Conduct
- The Advisory Opinions.
- Veracity → “truthfulness”
- Justice → “fairness”
- Autonomy → “self-governance”
- Beneficence → “do good”
- Nonmaleficence → “do no harm”