- Category: Dental Pathology & Medicine and Dental Radiology
- Aim: Revising for NBDE Part II
- Questions: 25
- Hint: No
- Mutiple Opportunites: No
- Time Limit: No
- Answer Explaining: Yes
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The mean energy of an x-ray beam is influenced by the ____
Voltage In the filament circuit
Quantity of electrons in the tube current
Amount of filtration
Two of the above
None of the above
Question 1 Explanation:
The mean energy (wavelength) of an x-ray beam is influenced by the kilovoltage setting on the machine and the amount of built-in filtration that preferentially absorbs low-energy photons.
The idiopathic condition in which destructive inflammatory lesions featuring necrotizing vasculitis are seen in the lung, kidney, and upper respiratory tract is known as ____.
Question 2 Explanation:
D. Destructive inflammation in the three sites noted is characteristic of Wegener’s granulomatosis.
The term ALARA refers to ____.
Reducing patient exposure to as low as is reasonably achievable
As little as Roentgen allowed, an algorithm for limiting patient exposure
A legal requirement to optimize occupational exposure in dental radiology
Optimizing image quality
Reducing the costs of radiographic examinations
Question 3 Explanation:
ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) is a concept for minimizing patient and occupational exposure.
Acantholysis, resulting from desmosome weakening by autoantibodies directed against the protein desmoglein, is the disease mechanism attributed to which of the following?
Mucous membrane pemphigoid
Herpes simplex infections
Question 4 Explanation:
C. In pemphigus vulgaris, autoantibodies attach to antigens (desmoglein) found in desmosomes that keep keratinocytes linked to each other.Cells eventually separate from each other (acan- tholysis), resulting in short-lived intraepithelial vesicles/bullae.
Cone-cutting results from ____
Too great a target-film distance
Not selecting the proper kVp
Not enough time exposure
The x-ray machine being improperly aimed
Question 5 Explanation:
D. Cone-cutting results from misalignment of the x- ray tube. Use a film-holding device with an external guide.
The long-term histopathologic consequences to an irradiated organ depend on ____.
The presence of oxygen at the time of irradiation
The sensitivity of the parenchymal component
The damage to the stromal component
All of the above
None of the above
Question 6 Explanation:
D. Numbers 1, 2, and 3 are correct.
Radiographs of the pregnant patient ____.
Should never be made
Cause fetal injury
Should only be made with triple leaded aprons on the mother’s lap
Should be made when there is a specific need
Question 7 Explanation:
D. Prudence suggests that radiographic examinations of a pregnant patient should be kept to a minimum consistent with the mother’s dental needs.
A 21-year-old woman went to her dentist because of facial asymmetry. This had occurred gradually over a period of 3 years. The patient had no symptoms. A diffusely opaque lesion was found in her right maxilla. All lab tests (CBC, alkaline phosphatase, calcium) were within normal limits. Biopsy was interpreted as a fibro- osseous lesion. She most likely has ____
Question 8 Explanation:
C. Cherubism is a fibro-osseous lesion that occurs in teenagers. Characteristically, it presents with ill-defined margins and a “ground glass” appear¬ance radiographically. The other features described also support this diagnosis.
Intranuclear viral inclusions are seen in tissue specimens of which of the following?
Minor aphthous ulcers
White sponge nevus
Question 9 Explanation:
D. Hairy leukoplakia is viral in origin and shows intranuclear inclusions in infected epithelial cells. Hairy leukoplakia is caused by Epstein-Barr virus, a herpes virus. Intranuclear epithelial inclusions are also seen other herpes virus infections (e.g., herpes simplex virus infections).
If your radiographs start coming out too light, it may be that ____
Your exposure time is too long
Your developer needs changing
Your developer is too hot
The fixer needs changing
The films are not sufficiently washed
Question 10 Explanation:
B. If proper processing procedures are followed, the developer will become depleted with age and need changing.
The function of the filament is to ____.
Convert electrons into photons
Convert photons into electrons
None of the above
Question 11 Explanation:
When heated, the filament releases electrons (thermionic emission).
It is generally desirable that x-ray films be all of the following except ____.
Fine grain size
Coated with emulsion on both sides
Sensitive to visible light
Question 12 Explanation:
D. Film is sensitive to visible light but this is not a desired characteristic like the other choices.
Conservative surgical excision would be appropriate treatment and probably curative for which of the following?
Adenoid cystic carcinoma
Question 13 Explanation:
A. Nodular fasciitis is a rapidly developing reactive lesion that typically does not recur following excision. Fibromatosis is an aggressive nonen- capsulated lesion that has significant recurrence potential. The other lesions listed are malignan- cies and require more than simple excision to prevent recurrence.
The most radiosensitive of the following cells in terms of cell killing is the ____.
Salivary gland acinar cell
Basal epithelial cell
Question 14 Explanation:
Basal epithelial cells are the most mitotically active of the cells on the list, and thus are the most radiosensitive.
X-ray film is composed of ____
Silver halide crystals suspended in plastic and coated on a gelatin base
Sodium thiosulphate crystals and suspended within a plastic base
A plastic base coated with silver halide crystals suspended in gelatin
Fluorescent particles that react to x-radiation
Question 15 Explanation:
C. Silver halide is not fluorescent, and thus choices and 2 are incorrect.
Papillomavirus has been found in all of the following lesions except
Verruca vulgaris of the oral mucosa
Focal epithelial hyperplasia
Question 16 Explanation:
D. Condyloma latum is one of the lesions that may be seen in secondary syphilis, which is caused by Treponema pallidum. All the other lesions listed may be associated with human papillomavirus.
A patient seeks help for recurrent palatal pain. She presents with multiple punctate ulcers in the hard palate that were preceded by tiny blisters. Her lesions typically heal in about 2 weeks and reappear during stressful times. She has ____
Recurrent primary herpes
Recurrent secondary herpes
Question 17 Explanation:
C. Recurrent intraoral herpes simplex infections occur only in the hard palate and hard gingiva, with the exception of AIDS patients. Blister (vesicle) history and recurrence are also supportive of this diagnosis.
The odontogenic neoplasm, which is composed of loose, primitive-appearing connective tissue that resembles dental pulp, microscopically is known as .
Question 18 Explanation:
E. Odontogenic myxomas are connective tissue neoplasms that contain little collagen. This gives them an embryonic look microscopically.
If an unwrapped, nonprocessed x-ray film is exposed to normal light for just a second and then processed, it ____.
May still be used but will be a little dark
May still be used but will be a little light
May still be used but will be brown
Will be completely black
Will be completely clear
Question 19 Explanation:
D. Visible light will expose all the silver bromide crystals and the film will be black after processing.
On a routine radiographic exam, a well-defined radiolucent lesion was seen in the body of the mandible of a 17-year-old boy. At the time of operation, it proved to be an empty cavity. This is a(an) ____.
Osteoporotic bone marrow
Aneurysmal bone cyst
Static bone cyst
Traumatic bone cyst
Question 20 Explanation:
E. Traumatic bone cysts characteristically occur in the body of the mandible of teenagers. They are pseudocysts in that they have no epithelial lining. They are empty cavities.
The purpose of a high-voltage transformer in an x-ray machine is to ____.
Decrease the tube current
Increase the wavelength of the x-rays
Improve timer accuracy
Increase the potential between the filament and the cathode
Regulate the rate of release of photons from the anode
Increase resistance in the filament
Question 21 Explanation:
D. The high-voltage transformer increases the voltage from the line voltage to the high voltage between the anode and cathode necessary to impart sufficient energy to the electrons to convert some of their energy into photons at the target.
To ensure high radiographic image quality, it is important to daily ____.
Check the temperature of the processing solutions
Clean the processing equipment
Clean the intensifying screens
Calibrate the mA linearity
Question 22 Explanation:
A. Daily check of the processing solution temperature, whether using automatic processing or manual tanks, and comparison with the manu¬facturer’s recommended values will improve image quality. The other procedures are useful but can be performed less frequently.
A cutaneous maculopapulary rash of the head and neck preceded by small ulcers in the buccal mucosa would suggest which of the following?
Primary herpes simplex infection
Question 23 Explanation:
B. The maculopapulary rash of rubeola (measles) is preceded by the herald sign of Koplick’s spots (punctate ulcers of the buccal mucosa).
A biopsy of the lower lip salivary glands showed replacement of parenchymal tissue by lymphocytes. The patient also had xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. These findings are indicative of which of the following?
Mucous extravasation phenomenon
Question 24 Explanation:
D. This triad of signs defines primary Sjogren’s syndrome. The patient has secondary Sjogren’s syndrome if rheumatoid arthritis or other autoim- mune disease is present.
You are unsure of the location of an opaque mass seen over a molar root on a periapical view. A second view of the same region, made with the x-ray machine oriented more from the mesial, reveals that the object has moved mesially with respect to the molar roots on the first view. The location of the object is ____.
Buccal to the roots
Lingual to the roots
In the same plane as the roots
Insufficient information to form an opinion
Question 25 Explanation:
B. Use the rule of “SLOB”: Same Lingual, Opposite Buccal.
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