Periodontics, Preparation for NBDE Part II

  • Category: Periodontics
  • Aim: Revising for NBDE Part II
  • Questions: 25
  • Hint: No
  • Mutiple Opportunites: No
  • Time Limit: No
  • Answer Explaining: Yes

Periodontics

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Question 1

Which of the following are cells of the innate immune system?

a. Neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages b. T cells and B cells c. Mast cells and dendritic cells d. Plasma cells

A
a and b
B
a and c
C
b and d
D
b and c
Question 1 Explanation: 
B. Cells of the innate immune system include neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, mast cells, and dendritic cells. Cells of the specific (adap¬tive) immune system include T cells, B cells, and plasma cells.
Question 2

Polymorphisms in which of the following genes have been associated with severe chronic periodontitis ?

A
IL-6
B
IL-1
C
TNF
D
PGE2
Question 2 Explanation: 
B. Polymorphisms in the IL-1 genes have been associated with severe chronic periodontitis.
Question 3
Occlusal loading resulting in tooth flexure, mechanical microfractures, and loss of tooth substance in the cervical area is ____.
A
Abrasion
B
Attrition
C
Erosion
D
Abfraction
Question 3 Explanation: 
D. Wasting diseases of the teeth Include erosion (corrosion; may be caused by acidic beverages), abrasion (caused by mechanical wear as with toothbrushing 'with abrasive dentifrice), attrition (due to functional contact with opposing teeth), and abfraction (flexure due to occlusal loading).
Question 4
Offset angulation is a characteristic feature of
A
Sickle scalers
B
Universal curettes
C
Area-specific curettes
D
Chisels
Question 4 Explanation: 
C. Sickle scalers and universal curettes do not have offset angulation of the blade. The working ends of area-specific curettes are offset at a 60-degree angle relative to the terminal shank. The working ends of sickle scalers and universal curettes are not offset—they are at a 90-degree angle relative to the terminal shank.
Question 5

Your examination, reveals a probing pocket depth of 6 mm on the facial of tooth 30. The free gingival margin is 2 mm apical to the CEJ (there is 2-mm recession on the facial% How much attachment loss has there been on the facial of this tooth?

A
6 mm
B
2 mm
C
8 mm
D
4 mm
Question 5 Explanation: 
C. When the free gingival margin Is apical to the CEJ, recession has occurred. Attachment loss is the measure from the CEJ to the base of the peri¬odontal pocket. With the free gingival margin 2 mm apical to the CEJ and the probing pocket depth measurement 6 mm, there has been 8 mm loss of attachment.
Question 6

Calculus is detrimental to the gingival tissues because it is ____.

A
A mechanical irritant
B
Covered with bacterial plaque
C
Composed of calcium and phosphorous
D
Locked into surface irregularities
Question 6 Explanation: 
B. Calculus is calcified dental plaque. It is always covered by a layer of uncalcified plaque, which is detrimental to the gingival tissues.
Question 7
When performing a laterally repositioned flap, which of the following must be considered relative to the donor site?
A
Presence of bone on the facial
B
Width of attached gingiva
C
Thickness of attached gingiva
D
All of the above
Question 7 Explanation: 
D. Laterally positioned flaps should only be performed when there is adequate bone and ade¬quate width and thickness of attached gingiva on the facial of the donor site.
Question 8

Which of the following are the most important proteinases involved in destruction of the periodontal tissues?

A
Hylauronidase
B
Matrix metalloproteinases
C
Glucuronidase
D
Serine proteinases
Question 8 Explanation: 
B. Matrix metalloproteinases are the most important proteinases Involved in the destruction of periodontal tissues.
Question 9

Which of the following are part of Preliminary Phase therapy?

a. Treatment of emergencies b. Extraction of hopeless teeth c. Plaque control d. Removal of calculus
A
a, b, and c
B
b, c, and d
C
a and b only
D
b and d only
Question 9 Explanation: 
C. Preliminary Phase therapy is used to treat emergencies and remove hopeless teeth.
Question 10
For most periodontitis-affected patients, what is the recommended interval for maintenance appointments?
A
1 month
B
3 months
C
6 months
D
1 year
Question 10 Explanation: 
B. The majority of patients who have been treated for periodontitis should be seen at 3-month intervals for supportive periodontal therapy (maintenance).
Question 11

Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells?

A
Neutrophils
B
T-lymphocytes
C
Macrophages
D
Plasma cells
Question 11 Explanation: 
C. Neutrophils are one of the primary defense cells of the Innate immune system. T-lymphocytes are important activators of the specific (adaptive) immune system. Macrophages are antigen- presenting cells. Plasma cells produce anti¬bodies.
Question 12
Dental wear caused by tooth-to-tooth contact is ____
A
Abrasion
B
Attrition
C
Erosion
D
Abfraction
Question 12 Explanation: 
B. Wasting diseases of the teeth Include erosion (corrosion; may be caused by acidic beverages), abrasion (caused by mechanical wear as with toothbrushing 'with abrasive dentifrice), attrition (due to functional contact with opposing teeth), and abfraction (flexure due to occlusal loading).
Question 13

In general, what species are predominant in supragingival tooth-associated attached plaque?

A
Gram-negative rods and cocci
B
Gram-negative filaments
C
Gram-positive filaments
D
Gram-positive rods and cocci
Question 13 Explanation: 
D. Supraginglval plaque Is either tooth-associated or outer layer. Tooth-associated Is composed pri- manly of gram-positive cocci and short rods.
Question 14
What are the characteristics of the primary (initial) bacterial colonizers of the tooth in dental plaque formation?
A
Gram-negative facultative
B
Gram-positive facultative
C
Gram-negative anaerobic
D
Gram-positive anaerobic
Question 14 Explanation: 
B. Streptococcal and Actinomyces species are ini¬tial colonizers of dental plaque. They are gram- positive, facultative micro-organisms.
Question 15

Which of the following is am important constituent of gram-negative microorganisms that contributes to initiation, of the host inflammatory response?

A
Exotoxin
B
Lipoteichoic acid
C
Endotoxin
D
Peptidoglycan
Question 15 Explanation: 
C. Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide is an important constituent of the gram-negative outer membrane that contributes to initiation of the host inflammatory response.
Question 16
The distance from the CEJ to the base of the pocket is a measure of ____
A
Clinical attachment level
B
Gingival recession
C
Probing pocket depth
D
Alveolar bone loss
Question 16 Explanation: 
A. The periodontal examination includes probing pocket depth (distance from the gingival margin to the base of the pocket) and clinical attach¬ment level (distance from the CEJ to the base of the pocket). Both of these measures are made using a periodontal probe. Gingival recession can be measured as the distance from the CEJ to the free gingival margin. Alveolar bone loss is meas¬ured radiographically.
Question 17
What is the most important procedure to perform during the initial postoperative visits following periodontal surgery?
A
Plaque removal
B
Visual assessment of the soft tissue
C
Periodontal probing
D
Bleeding index
Question 17 Explanation: 
A. Plaque removal during the initial postoperative visits following periodontal surgery is essential to healing of the periodontal tissues.
Question 18

The predominant inflammatory cells in the periodontal pocket are ____.

A
Lymphocytes
B
Plasma cells
C
Neutrophils
D
Macrophages
Question 18 Explanation: 
C. Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells in the periodontal pocket and have mig¬rated across the pocket epithelium from the subgingival vascular plexus.
Question 19
The most common clinical sign of occlusal trauma is ____.
A
Tooth migration
B
Tooth abrasion
C
Tooth mobility
D
Tooth attrition
Question 19 Explanation: 
C. Although tooth migration can be a sign of occlusal trauma, tooth mobility is the most com¬mon clinical sign.
Question 20
Patients with which of the following should not he treated with ultrasonic instruments?
A
Deep periodontal pockets
B
Edematous tissue
C
Infectious diseases
D
Controlled diabetes
Question 20 Explanation: 
C. Patients with active infectious diseases should not be treated with ultrasonic instruments because of the aerosol that is created when using this type of instrument.
Question 21

Given the same amount of attachment loss and 22. same pocket depth, a single-rooted tooth and a multirooted tooth have the same prognosis. The closer the base of the pocket is to the apex of the tooth, the worse the prognosis.

A
Both statements are true.
B
Both statements are false.
C
First statement is true. Second statement is false.
D
First statement is false. Second statement is true.
Question 21 Explanation: 
D. Single-rooted teeth have a poorer prognosis than do multirooted teeth with comparable loss of attachment. Loss of attachment that extends to the apex of the root alters the crown-to-root ratio and makes the prognosis worse.
Question 22
Which class of bony defect responds best to regenerative therapy?
A
One-walled
B
Two-walled
C
Three-walled
D
Shallow crater
Question 22 Explanation: 
C. Three-walled defects respond best to regenerative therapy.
Question 23
Which of the following is most important in determining the prognosis for a tooth?
A
Probing pocket depth
B
Bleeding on probing
C
Clinical attachment level
D
Level of alveolar bone
Question 23 Explanation: 
C. The amount of clinical attachment loss is most important in determining the prognosis. Deep pocket depths and bleeding on probing can be found in both gingivitis and periodontitis. Although the level of alveolar bone is usually con¬sistent with the amount of clinical attachment loss, there are circumstances under which these two measures are not comparable.
Question 24
The inorganic component of subgingival plaque is derived from ____.
A
Bacteria
B
Saliva
C
Gingival crevicular fluid
D
Neutrophils
Question 24 Explanation: 
C. Saliva is the source of inorganic components (calcium, phosphorous) for supraginglval plaque. Gingival crevicular fluid is the source of inorganic components of subgingival plaque.
Question 25

Restoration margins are plaque-retentive and produce the most inflammation when they are located

A
Supragingival
B
Subgingival
C
At the level of the gingival margin
D
On buccal surfaces of teeth
Question 25 Explanation: 
B. Supraginglval margins are least detrimental to the gingival tissues; subgingival margins are the most detrimental due to the accumulation of dental plaque.
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